Orozco says some of the songs he has collected, and that he now shares, may date back to as long ago as 10,000 yearssongs that the singer notes were nearly lost forever.
Beginning late in the 17th century Spanish missionaries began their sweep up the California coast. Indigenous Indians were enslaved, displaced from their homes, and forced to work in mission-run fields. Tens of thousands of them were killed by diseases such as smallpox and measles.
The enslavement, death, and disease continued when Mexico won independenceand Californiafrom Spain in 1823 and through the early years of occupation by the United States, which began in 1846. In the gold rush years miners killed Indians with abandon, according to historical accounts.
Troy Johnson, a professor of American Indian studies, said the impact on the California Indian population from Spanish missionaries and early U.S. settlers was devastating.
"If the numbers are correct, and I feel they are greatly understated, the Spanish period saw a decline from 330,000 to about 130,000 [Indians] and the early American period saw a decline from 130,000 to under 13,000," Johnson said.
Native Americans had no written history during this period, but events were committed to memory. The responsibility was often held by a few tribal elders, who would pass the stories, songs, significant events, and other key bits of information onto the next generation.
With the deaths of so many Native Americans, some of the songs and storiesand their recorded oral historywere inevitably lost. Yet, as evidenced by Orozco's work, many of the songs survived. "It was a matter of honor and necessity to remember such things," Johnson said.
According to Johnson, many of the songs were kept by Indian women who would sing them while working in the fields of Spanish missions and in their homes outside of the mission walls. "As Indian culture has begun to renew itself, those songs have come back, many largely intact," Johnson said.
When Orozco began collecting the songs from elders throughout California, he found that many of the songs were only partially known, and oftentimes nobody knew their meaning. Through his work, he has pieced them back together.
"It has been a struggle," Orozco said, "but it was worthwhile."
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