Exxon eventually mobilized a massive cleanup effort. Deploying what became known as Exxon's Army, the company says it spent 2.1 billion U.S. dollars on the cleanup over the next years. But most of the damage was done in the first few days.
"I was very upset at the time that we did not have the courage to burn the ship," said Gail Phillips, the executive director of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council in Anchorage. "For the money that's been spent and the losses that are out there, it would have been cheap just to burn the ship."
The council, which has overseen the restoration of the injured ecosystem, was formed with money from court settlements in 1991 that ordered Exxon to pay a billion dollars in damages. To date, the council has spent $750 million.
In the first few years, the council concentrated on purchasing land to ensure that key habitats for injured species would not be further damaged by logging and other development. In later years, it shifted its focus to restoration projects and, in particular, a research program to gather information about the area's marine ecosystem.
"The primary goal of the restoration plan was to make sure that all the resources were restored to the condition they were in before the spill," Phillips said. "The problem was that we had no baseline data. We didn't know how many whales, sea otters, or ducks should be in the sound."
On the surface Prince William Sound's environment has returned to its prespill condition. Wildlife flourishes. Most commercial fisheries are doing well. Even tourism is booming.
But look a little closer and the picture gets a little murkier. In some of the hardest-hit areas, swaths of oilburied just a few inches below the surfacerun across the beaches. Water may circulate to the edges of the oil, but not through it.
"There are isolated pockets where you can still find effects of the oil spill," Rice said.
Among the animal species that have not recovered are common loons, harbor seals, harlequin ducks, and Pacific herring.
Sea otters, which eat clams buried underground, are particularly affected by the subsurface oil. The clams may be clean, but sea otters may get oil on their fur, which requires energy to cope with.
"It's like getting the flu three times a year instead of once," Rice said. "It makes you sicker and less capable of feeding. Sea otters eat 25 percent of their body weight every day. If that's lowered to 15 percent over, say, ten days, they will probably die."
Sea otters have been found with increased levels of a substance contained in petroleum products known as cytochrome P450.
"Knowing what we have found out in the last three to four years about sea otters and harlequin ducks, we probably would have been out there cleaning those beaches earlier," Rice said. "But we didn't know that at the time. We assumed that by 1992, we wouldn't see any more significant oil effects."
The scope of the spill blindsided everyone.
"At the time, we didn't have the spill-response depots. We didn't have skimmer vessels. We didn't have the amount of boom [floating barriers used to contain spills] for a ship that large," Phillips said. "There were so many things we were not prepared for. People didn't pay attention to what it meant to transport that much oil in pristine water. Nobody dreamed that this could ever happen."
Today the oil-transportation industry is far more regulated. Tankers must have double hulls. Emergency plans must be regularly reviewed. In the town of Valdez, ships must be guided by escort tugs until they enter open waters.
But some conservationists warn that the memory of Exxon Valdez may be fading. Plans to open up the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge for oil exploration, which were shelved after the Exxon Valdez spill, have again resurfaced.
"The Exxon Valdez oil spill opened the eyes of many members of Congress of the potential disasters that aggressive oil and gas development policies can result in," said Dan Lathery, who works on Alaska issues for the Sierra Club in Washington, D.C. "Now, 15 years to the day since the worst environmental disaster in U.S. history, the current [White House] administration's drive for oil and gas development is reversing policies that were put in place after the spill."
Because the Exxon Valdez spill occurred in such a pristine area, it has turned into a model for studies of other oil spills. Scientists have been able to quantify longer-term effects of oil on growth and mortality without interference from other sources of pollution.
"One of the lessons is that oil will persist longer in some habitats than we would have expected," Rice said. "The years three through ten [after a spill] may be as significant as years two and three combined, or even the first year."
As for Captain Hazelwood, he was fined U.S. $50,000 and ordered to perform a thousand hours of community service: picking up trash along the Seward Highway and working at Bean's Café, a soup kitchen for the homeless in Anchorage.
The Exxon Shipping Company was renamed Sea River Shipping Company. The Exxon Valdez ship was repaired and renamed the Sea River Mediterranean, and today hauls oil across the Atlantic. The tanker is prohibited by law from ever returning to Prince William Sound.
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