for National Geographic News
"Get that broad the hell out of here!"
That unchivalrous comment was leveled by a United States Marine Corps general at Dickey Chapelle, a woman photographer who had made her way to his front during the bloody battle of Okinawa, toward the end of World War II.
It was still a man's world, in which being a woman was never more challenging than on the battlefield. During the First World War women war correspondents were simply nonexistent; the U.S. military accredited only one, then sent her off to Siberia, far from the main fighting fronts. But after Pearl Harbor, of the 1,600 reporters permitted to wear the armband emblazoned with a "C" that meant war correspondent, 127 were women.
World War II opened doors for American women in a number of ways. Some would close again; others remain barely ajar. But those 127 flung one door wide open and emerged from those muddy, bloody campaigns having proved that in reporting war, women were the equal of men.
It wasn't easy. Wherever they went, these "gal correspondents" had to hustle harder than their male colleagues. For theirs was a double war: the war against the enemy, and the war against the system. They had to fight red tape, condescension, disdain, outright hostility, and downright lewdness.
And always, everywhere, the bathroom excuse: No facilities for womenpermission denied. One enraged general barked at Chapelle that he didn't want one hundred thousand Marines pulling up their pants because she was around. But Dickey could outstare any general. She countered with an answer that spoke for all her female colleagues, wherever in this far-flung conflict they tried to work. "That won't bother me one bit,"' she replied. "My object is to cover the war."
Covering the War
One of those equally determined colleagues was Life magazine's Margaret Bourke-White, the best-known American woman photographer of the day. As the only foreign photojournalist in Moscow when the Germans invaded Russia, her pictures of flares and searchlights and anti-aircraft tracers streaking the night sky over the Kremlin were published around the world. She made them from her hotel balcony or the roof of the American embassy, flaunting a Soviet edict that anyone caught taking pictures would be shot.
Despite her fame and reputation, Bourke-White faced many difficulties. She was denied access to cover the Allied invasion of North Africa, the excuse being that it was too dangerous for a woman to fly there from England. She took a ship insteadwhich was promptly torpedoed en route. Carrying only her cameras into the lifeboat, Bourke-White then produced a riveting coverage on the dangers of wartime travel at sea. In January 1943 she finally won permission to become the first woman ever to fly on an American air combat mission. And during the Italian campaign, admiring soldiers watched her drag her camera and tripod through sniper fire to exposed ridge tops and make panoramic shots of the fighting.
The tall, strikingly beautiful Martha Gellhorn was a talented writer whose philandering husband, Ernest Hemingway, claimed she secretly loved war and was happiest there. She vehemently disagreed, writing powerful anti-war pieces for Collier's magazine. Always chafing at U.S. Army restrictions, Gellhorn traveled in Italy with Free French troopsmore accommodating, unsurprisingly, to women reportersthen bucked the system by arriving on the D-Day invasion beaches as a stowaway. Stripped of her accreditation, she nevertheless used charm and wit, courage and quick feet to keep up with the armies. She accompanied a night combat mission in the skies over Germany, flak bursting around the airplane, and as her marriage dissolved, had a torrid affair with General James Gavin of 82nd Airborne. Her work was fiercely uncompromising. For many, Gellhorn's dispatches set new standards for narrative frontline journalism. Her volume The Face of War remains as strong an indictment as any penned by the Hemingways of the world.
No one had battlefield chic like Lee Miller. An ex-model and avant-garde bohemian, she had been friends with Picasso, Cocteau, and Man Ray before becoming a fashion photographer for Vogue magazine. Stylish even in wartime, she wore a helmet of her own design featuring a visor like those worn by medieval knights. That never blinkered her photographic eye, and her pictures of shattered cities, blood-spattered field hospitals, and surrendering German officers were made with the same professional detachment as her shots of U.S. servicewomen at Paris fashion shows. But the Nazi death camps were different. Her searing images of bodies piled at Dachau were simple and direct, full of emotional impact and conviction. She simply cajoled Vogue into publishing them under the title, "BELIEVE IT!"