for National Geographic News
Not all mountain ranges are created equally. Consider the central Andes of South America: A pair of Earth scientists reports today that the second highest mountains in the world reached their lofty height thanks to frigid ocean waters and parched soils.
Only the Himalaya are taller, which have formed as the Indian and Asian landmasses have slowly plowed into each other over the last 50 million years. The Andes, by contrast, have formed as the floor of the Pacific Ocean slips uneasily beneath South America, ruffling the land along the west coast of the continent.
The Andes stretch the length of South America's west coast, from Colombia to the southern tip of Patagonia in Chile. The mountains' middle rangewhich stretches from central Peru, across Bolivia, and down to central Chile and Argentinais nearly twice as tall as the more northern and southern sections of the cordillera on average.
"I began to wonder why part of the mountain belt should be so much higher," said Simon Lamb, an earth scientist at the University of Oxford in England.
Lamb and his colleague Paul Davis, a geologist at the University of California, Los Angeles, describe in tomorrow's issue of the science journal Nature how the fault along this section of the Andes is starved of lubricating sediments, giving it the stickiness required to support mountains that reach heights over 20,000 feet (6,000 meters).
The lack of lubricating sediments, they say, results from a cold ocean current that flows up from Antarctica, keeping the sky free of clouds and the soil parched. No rain means no rivers to carry sediment back into the ocean.
John Dewey, a geologist at the University of California at Davis, said the basic principles described in the paper have been proposed for other mountain ranges, including the Southern Alps of New Zealand.
"This is a well known idea," he said. "What they've done is nicely applied it to the Andes. What they say is basically logical and right."
Like skyscrapers in New York City, the Andes need a foundation to prevent them from falling down. For the Andes, this support comes from the so-called subduction fault where the Pacific Ocean slides beneath South America and into the Earth's interior.
"The rougher this faultthe less lubricated it isthe more push it can exert holding up the Andes," said Lamb, noting that the challenge of a well-lubricated fault holding up a mountain range is like to trying to push a stalled car along an icy road: a difficult task if you can't get a grip on the slippery road.
Lamb and Davis calculated how slippery the fault is along the length of the Andes and found that it is at its roughest, or stickiest, in the area that supports the central Andes.
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