for National Geographic News
Researchers are developing a sonar system to help boaters steer off a collision course with the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus Linneaus). The technology could be the difference between population growth and decline in the endangered species.
In 2002, 95 of the 305 recorded manatee deaths resulted from boat collisions, making it the leading cause of death for the slow-moving animals. The remaining manatee population is estimated to be less than 3,300, according to conservation groups.
The mammals, also known as sea cows, ply near-surface waters in coastal rivers, bays, and estuaries where they graze on marine grasses and other water plants. Manatees have light gray to dark rounded bodies that can grow up to 14 feet (4.2 meters) long and weigh as much as 3,000 pounds (1,361 kilograms).
Like deer in the headlights of an oncoming car, manatees have poor avoidance strategies when in the path of danger. Their natural instinct is to imperil themselves, said Jules Jaffe, a research oceanographer with the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego. As a result, the manatees often get killed.
"They are very slow moving animals and when they sense danger the actually do the wrong thingthey migrate to the middle of the channel and surface," said Jaffe, who in collaboration with Ann Bowles, a senior research biologist at the Hubbs-SeaWorld Research Institute in San Diego, is developing a sonar system that would warn boaters of a manatee's presence and hopefully prevent fatal collisions.
The project is supported by a joint research grant from the National Geographic Society Conservation Trust and SeaWorld & Busch Gardens Conservation Fund.
"Manatees are totally at a disadvantage in Florida waterways," said Patti Thompson, director of science and conservation at the Save the Manatee Club in Maitland, Florida. "Boats are bigger and faster and there are many more of them than there used to be, so it has become an almost overwhelming problem for the manatees."
Thompson reviewed proposals submitted to the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission to reduce the number of boat-caused manatee deaths. She said Bowles' project was the most promising of the lot.
Bowles "has the right idea for what it is we should be looking at when it comes to avoiding manatees," said Thompson.
The commission and the Florida Marine Research Institute have also provided funding for this project. Thompson said that it was the only one proposed that placed the onus of avoiding a collision on the boaters instead of the manatees.
"To expect animals that didn't evolve with the threat of boats to be the entity of the two that has to learn to avoid the boat, I think is an unfair expectation," said Thompson. "What we should do is discover a technology that allows boats to avoid manatees."
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