for National Geographic Ultimate Explorer
This story also airs Sunday June 8, at 8 p.m. ET/PT on National Geographic's Ultimate Explorer.
In parts of Cambodia, the struggle against poaching has become an armed conflict. The nation's extensive forests were somewhat protected during the decades-long civil war because people feared to enter this refuge of the vicious Khmer Rouge. Tigers, clouded leopards, rare bird species, and countless other exotic species enjoyed a relatively unmolested existence.
But now the forests and their wildlife are under siege by embattled people desperate to survive from week to week. In this beautiful but troubled country naturalist and Ultimate Explorer correspondent Nick Baker discovered a more complex issue than he bargained for. It's a thorny dilemma with no obvious answers.
Eco-Warriors Fight Uphill Battle
Cambodia is not without protections for wildlife. The country has a national park history dating to the 1920salthough war ravaged the system. In 1993 some 23 protected areas were established that covered over 15 percent of the country. More have been added in succeeding yearsbut such paper protection must often be backed up on the ground.
While Cambodia's forests are extensive for this part of the world they are far from limitless. And human pressure is starting to take a serious toll.
Baker spent several weeks in the field with WildAid, a nongovernment organization that has adopted military-style tactics in an effort to preserve Cambodia's wild places and their animal inhabitants. Using intelligence information, the group conducts raids of restaurants and other establishments suspected of involvement in the wildlife tradenot exactly familiar operations to the average environmentalist.
Such trade in animals is a longstanding practice that is technically illegal but quite loosely enforced. While WildAid and others break up trading operations and return some animals to the wild, the practice likely continues on an enormous scale.
The rangers also take to the forests to track down an even more troubling problemillegal logging. Tree by tree loggers are decimating the forests and their inhabitants. The biggest prize is "black wood" for which there is a booming market in neighboring Vietnam.
WildAid troops are heavily armed, and sometimes the poachers are as well. It's a recipe for danger andpotentiallymore trouble. "I can see this thing escalating into an arms race," Baker told National Geographic News. "That's how they start. People arm themselves to fight poachers and the poachers up the ante, and it goes on. Before you know it people will be dying out here again over a different issue."
Baker says he arrived in Cambodia with preconceived notions of himself as an irresolute defender of the environment. But he confesses conflicted emotions when confronted with the desperation of people trying to survive by utilizing the only thing left to themthe resources of the forest.
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