"That has burgeoned into a large number of people around the world studying (the overwintering capabilities) of insects, fish and plants," Duman says.
The discovery has launched a flurry of patent applications for everything from creamier ice creams to hardier plants. Hopes for the antifreeze protein include better ways to preserve human organs for transplant as well as environmentally safer airplane de-icers.
For years Duman had studied AFP-containing insects that live in Indiana. In 1999, he teamed up with Barnes.
Neither was an insect expert. Barnes teaches a class on overwintering strategies among Alaskan animals, from ground squirrels to migrating birds. Barnes and his students began to study insects, too, and published research on Alaska yellow jackets and stink bugs.
Together Duman and Barnes conducted a brief survey of Alaska insects. The yellow jackets didn't use AFPs, says Barnes. But the survey turned up many others that doseven of 12 species that the researchers tested.
Stink bugs attracted Duman's attention because they appear to contain a previously unknown version of AFP.
Duman's team is also looking into comparisons between AFP-containing insects that live in both Indiana and Alaska, like the beetle Cucujus clavipes. In Indiana, Duman says, the insect dies at minus 13°F (-25°C), but above the Arctic Circle, it can survive temperatures near 60° below zero F (-51°C).
This season's explorations have already raised more questions.
Since the Indiana insects show different levels of AFPs in their blood at different times of year, Duman assumed that in winter's coldest months, Alaska beetles would contain even more of the proteinperhaps a record amount.
As it happens, the Alaska insects don't use much more AFP than the Hoosier variety.
"I guess in retrospect, maybe we should have anticipated that these guys have got to get ready (for frigid temperatures) early," Duman says.
Another finding was that some of the Alaska insects also appear to lose most of their body's water in winter, practically desiccating, but somehow rehydrate and come back to life.
Alaska insect physiology pioneer Keith Miller, formerly of the University of Alaska and now retired in Central Point, Ore., says that this spring's research only increases his respect for Alaska's insects.
When he studied them, he says, "I was constantly being surprised" at the seemingly infinite list of strategies that insects use to inhabit one of the world's least hospitable climates.
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