For example, all catslions, tigers, cheetahs, leopards and housecatsbelong to the family Felidae; all dogs belong to Canidae. Finding a new subfamily of jellyfish is like finding something as different as these two families are to each other.
"As you go up higher through the taxonomy, through the classification, it gets harder and harder to get new things," says Matsumoto. "(Big Red) is not only a new species but it represents a new genus and a new sub-family."
In the scientific literature Big Red is now known as Tiburonia granrojo. The genus Tiburonia is named for the remotely operated submersible, Tiburon, that captured Big Red on video in 1998. The name of the subfamily is Tiburoniinae.
Like a Human with Four Arms
The most obvious sign that Big Red was really new was that it lacked tentacles; whereas most jellies use a net of fine tentacles to catch their food.
Only about three species of jelly identified to date do without these appendagesthese are wispy, very delicate creatures that are all closely related. By contrast, Big Red is robust.
The feature that researchers find most intriguing is a collection of short stumps protruding from Big Red's surfaceso-called "oral arms" that might be used for feeding. What mystifies Matsumoto is why some of these jellies have four arms, whereas others have six or seven.
"It is like finding one human with four arms, another with three, and another with two," says Matsumoto.
The jelly first came to the attention of Matsumoto in 1998 when a geologist colleague showed him a video and photographs taken during an exploratory mission around the underwater Gumdrop seamount, northwest of Monterey and about 75 miles west of the San Francisco coastline. Going back through video footage from the institute the scientists found sightings of the creature dating back to 1993.
The video was taken by the remotely operated sub called Tiburonvehicles of its type are now becoming the mainstay of underwater exploration.
But it was almost another three years before scientists could collect a specimen of the creature. Big Red is so large that Matsumoto and his colleagues have only found one specimen that was small enough to collecta little jelly about six inches (15 centimeters) long.
Tracking Big Red
"It took us a very long time to get a specimen. We don't like to publish descriptions of new species unless we have something to give to a museum," says Matsumoto.
The specimen was caught literally in Matsumoto's backyardthe Monterey Submarine Canyon, which at 13,000 feet (4000 meters) is the deepest canyon on the West Coast.
The world of Big Red is cold and darkall sightings to date have been between 2,100 and 4,900 feet (645 and 1,497 meters) where the water temperature hovers between a chilly 37 to 40 degrees Fahrenheit (2.6 and 4.9 degrees Celsius).
At this depth the last rays of sunlight fail to penetrate the water and the only lights comes from life forms that produce twinkles and sparkles of primarily blue and green bioluminescence.
Much basic research remains to be done to solve mysteries surrounding the life of Big Red. How long do these jellies live? When and where do they feed?
Unlike many other jellyfish, which are transparent, the red pigment of this jelly prevents the researchers from peering into the creature's gut to see what it had for lunch.
"Other jellies have tentacles covered in stinging cells whereas this jelly must have very different feeding behavior," Madin points out. "What I would like to know is how Big Red eats and what it eats."
Matsumoto hopes to continue exploring the deep sea and collect more specimens of Big Redperhaps some larger ones. He is also developing a tiny acoustic transponder that could be implanted in the jelly and used to track it with an unmanned sub.
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