However, this isn't the only type of change, or mutation, that can occur through evolution, said Britten. Single nucleotides or whole sections of DNA can end up being deleted or inserted into the existing sequence. These kinds of changes are known as indels, he said.
Due to the paucity of long strings of accurately sequenced DNA data, it hasn't been possible until recently to compare the number of indels between sequences, said Nelson.
Britten decided to re-examine the question of genetic similarity looking at both indels and nucleotide substitutions. He compared long DNA sequences735,000 nucleotides in lengthtaken from both the human and chimpanzee genome databases. Britten reports his findings in the upcoming issue of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The study became available online September 23.
Filling the Gaps
While the results confirmed that single nucleotide substitutions did account for roughly 1.4 percent of the differences, in accordance with previous estimates, Britten also found that indels account for a further 3.9 percent of divergence. This gives a rough estimate of five percent difference, he said.
"There seems to be a deep interest in this question," of how genetically similar we are with chimpanzees, said Britten. "Increasing the number is mostly a technical matter though; we are still the same distance away as we were before, and that is about five million years," he said.
The new estimate could be a little misleading, said Saitou Naruya, an evolutionary geneticist at the National Institute of Genetics in Mishima, Japan. "There is no consensus about how to count numbers or proportion of nucleotide insertions and deletions," he said.
Indels are common in the non-functional sections of the genome, said Peter Oefner, a researcher at Stanford's Genome Technology Center in Palo Alto, California. Scientists estimate that up to 97 percent of DNA in the human genome has no known function. However, he added, indels are extremely rare in gene sequences.
"We haven't observed a single indel in a [gene] to date between human and chimp," said Oefner. Therefore, the revised estimate doesn't alter the amount of DNA that holds information about our species. Humans and chimps still differ by about one percent in gene sequences, he said.
Nevertheless, "5 percent is probably closer to what people thought [the difference would be] a priori," said Nelson. Even the smaller figure of 1.5 percent is quite large across the three billion or so nucleotides that make up the human genome, he said.
Researchers hope that studying the differences between the human and chimpanzee genomes could provide insight into language, intelligence, and other factors that define our species. To this end researchers are now in the process of deciphering the chimpanzee genome.
Despite the small genetic differences between our species, the chimpanzee doesn't suffer from many afflictions that regularly affect peopleillnesses ranging from malaria to some types of cancer. Studying the genetic differences between chimps and humans may provide insight into some of these human diseases.
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