for National Geographic News
Archaeologists have discovered a well and the remains of a building inside the boundaries of James Fort, the original location of the first permanent English colony in the New World.
The find suggests that the fort housing the first English settlers to arrive on the shores of North America in 1607 was larger than originally believed. The well may also harbor artifacts made of wood, leather, and cloth, in addition to plant material and seeds that are not normally preserved.
"It's an incredibly exciting feature to find," said William Kelso, director of archaeology for the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities (APVA). "Colonists often used abandoned wells as trash pits, eventually filling them in. In addition to the tantalizing possibility of finding organic materials, it's possible we'll learn more about the fate of the colonists."
The settlement suffered an extremely high death rate; it's possible, suggests Kelso, that the water was contaminated. Another theory holds that the colonists were poisoned by salt. "The water table has remained at close to the same level for 400 years; we may be able to determine how much salt is in the water," he said.
In May 1607, 108 settlers landed on Jamestown Island, essentially as employees of the Virginia Company, a joint venture chartered by King James I. Investors expected the company to settle the New World, find gold, map a water route to China, and turn a profit.
Upon arriving on the shores of James Island, the settlers built a fort, and fell into a life and death struggle, battling drought, disease, famine, and local natives. The "starving winter" of 1608 left only 60 settlers alive. The fort was on the verge of being abandoned when supply ships arrived from England.
Contemporary accounts, including a sketch by a Spanish ambassador, describe the fort as triangular-like in shape, with wooden palisades enclosing a storehouse, church, and a number of houses. Historians believe the fort remained as an active post into the 1620s. By 1800, the fort had disappeared under farmland.
Digging for Clues to the Past
The island was fortified during both the American Revolution and the Civil War. But over the last 100 years, uncovering the original James Fort has engaged the imaginations and attention of American archaeologists. For a long time many historians believed the original fort had been eroded away, washed into the James River.
In 1900, a sea wall was constructed, and in 1934 the island was designated as a national park. But it wasn't until 1996 that the palisades of the original fort were definitively identified.
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