National Geographic Today
Earlier this week the largest invertebrate on Earth, an animal that has never before been seen in its native habitat, washed up on the chilly eastern shores of Tasmania, Australia. The giant squid, an adult female, bore the marks of a torrid sexual affair. Sucker marks decorated her neck, and the top of her head bore a nip, possibly from a male's beak. Sperm samples suggest that she may have mated nearby.
"This is very exciting, particularly because this specimen is so incredibly fresh," said David Pemberton, senior curator of zoology at The Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery in the state capital, Hobart, who is supervising the squid's investigation.
The squid weighs about 550 pounds (250 kilograms) and was found in two pieces on Seven Mile Beach. Though her longest tentacles have been lost, estimates based on her remaining arms suggest she would have been around 50 feeta little larger than the average giant squid, Architeuthis dux, found to date. She is not, however, a new species.
Though the actual specimen is cause for celebration, it is the possibility of a mating ground nearby that Pemberton finds truly tantalizing. This female squid washed up on July 20. Two others have washed ashore in the same general area in the last 16 yearsthe first on July 19, 1986 and the second on July 20, 1991.
A Breeding Ground
"That's spooky," said Pemberton, though he offered a possible explanation: The giant squid may have a breeding ground in nearby Storm Bay that they visit annually. Cuttlefish and arrow squid, for example, gather each year in Storm Bay in September and March respectively for "synchronized breeding." Maybe giant squid do the same.
There are indications that this giant squid had recently mated. Scientists found sperm deposits under her mantlewhere sperm is stored before fertilizing the eggs.
But, cautioned Clyde Roper, a teuthologist (squid specialist) at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., studies of other squid have revealed that sperm packets or "spermatophores" can remain viable for weeks and sometimes months after mating. So there is no guarantee that the meeting of the sexes took place nearby, or even recently.
Regardless, "Tasmania is turning out to be a hot spot for giant squid," said Pemberton. And that's good news for squid seekers. Roper concurred. "Actually, the whole regionthe band of ocean stretching from New Zealand's South Island to Tasmania and into the waters south of Australiais a hot zone," said Roper, who has led three expeditions since 1996 to hunt for Architeuthis.
In the last 20 years, more than 100 giant squid have been hauled up by vessels in the waters off the coast of New Zealand's South Island, and Roper estimated that around 35 specimens have been found in south Australian waters.
A Creature of Mythic Proportions
What little is known about the giant squid is based on the mangled remains of dead animals caught in fishermen's nets, decayed specimens washed ashore, and the indigestible giant squid beaks found in the stomachs of sperm whalesa natural predator, and one of the few animals large enough to tackle the giant squid. Given this, every new specimen is regarded as a blessing from Neptune.
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