National Geographic did not want to disturb PT-109's remains, and without artifacts recovered from the site, the Navy could offer only conditional confirmation. Still, Wertheimer concluded, "Given all the evidence presented, it appears to be the PT-109." That evidence includes the find's location, the types of torpedo and torpedo tube, and a cranking mechanism.
First, location: No other PT (patrol torpedo) boat was lost in the search area. Plus, the location of the find is consistent with historical accounts of the PT-109 bow's drift. (The stern, or rear, sank at impact.)
Following the course established by an isolated Australian coastwatcher the day after the collision "and Kennedy's own accounts into that night, it would place the bow section at the southeastern end of Blackett Strait near the entrance to Ferguson Passage," said Ballard. "This is exactly where we found PT-109." (See map.)
Second, the types of torpedo and tube foundMark 8 and Mark 18, respectivelywere used mainly on PT boats during World War II.
Third, a PT-boat training geara cranking mechanism used to position a torpedo tube for firingwas identified next to the tube at the wreck site.
Where Is the Rest of the Boat?
That last detailthe training gearcombined with readings from sonar (which can penetrate the seafloor) have Ballard convinced at least part of the rest of the bow is buried and connected to the tube.
The gear is positioned as it would have been on an intact boat. And the search team tried to nudge the gear with an ROV attachment. "It didn't budge," said Ballard during the expedition. "That says it's intact."
In addition, "Our sonar record is seeing much more than our eye is seeing," said Ballard. Sonar showed a target some 7 meters (23 feet) wide, roughly the width of a PT boat.
If buried, most of the largely wooden hull would likely have disintegrated or been eaten by woodborers in these sand-scoured, oxygen-rich waters. For the most part, only metal would remain: engines, gas tanks, torpedo tubes.
And the stern? It sank at the collision site, approximately five miles (eight kilometers) north of the bow siteif it remained intact at all. "This was probably so utterly crushed in the initial collision," said Wertheimer, "that you won't find much of anything recognizable." Not that Ballard was looking for long.
In what he calls "a snap decision," Ballard gave up looking for the stern on about the fourth day of the weeklong search. It was, he said, "the pivotal point" of the expedition. Had they kept searching for the stern, he said at the end of the expedition, "We would be going home without a success."
How They Found the Wreck
Ballard's initial target was PT-109's stern. It would be easier to find, the logic went, because it went down at a known location, whereas the bow floated at least 12 hours, according to crew accounts, before sinking (see map).
The search began with methodical, round-the-clock sonar scans of the predetermined search zone. Sonar showed "thousands and thousands of targets that fit the description of PT-109," said Ballardmost likely shipwrecks, ridges, and boulders.
"I knew it was hopeless," said Ballard. "So I said, Now what am I going to do? Well, the only thing left was to go after the bow. And that proved to be a very nice decision," he laughed.
In his newly narrowed search areaabout a mile and a half square (four kilometers square)Ballard found "the best target we saw in our whole survey." He added: "Some people thought it was a barge. We said, let's go look at a barge anyway."
Target secured, the team deployed their two ROVs: Little Hercules (see photo), used primarily for filming, and Argus, used mainly as a lighting rig for "Herc."
Three days before the charter expired on their search ship, the team got visual confirmation: "It turned out it wasn't a barge at all," said Ballard. "I'm glad we looked."
The Story of PT-109
Asked why he wanted to look for the PT-109 in the first place, Ballard said, "Many young people these days don't even know the story of PT-109. [Kennedy] emerged from this experience the person who went on to become the President of the U.S."
Asked how he became a war hero, Kennedy once answered, "It was easythey sank my boat." But the sinking may have been the only easy thing about it.
The dashing new lieutenant was likely drawn to the adrenaline and independence of PT service. With crews of 12 to 14, the high-speed, 80-foot (24-meter) "mosquito boats" nimbly harassed much larger enemy ships. And in World War II, PT service was nearly the only way a relatively new officer could skipper his own boat.
When Kennedy took charge of PT-109, on April 25, 1943, he was already a millionaire heir, society figure, and ambassador's son (see photo). But fame and fortune were scarce comfort to him on August 2, 1943.
Kennedy spent the rest of the night helping rescue injured and wave-tossed crew members (see photo). By dawn the survivors were all clinging to the still-floating bow.
By afternoon they were making a several-hour swimthe strong towing the injuredto a deserted island (see photo). Despite a back injury, Kennedy himself pulled the worst case, tugging the sailor's life vest with his teeth.
The following days (see detailed time line at right) saw several fearless attempts to be rescued. The men were weary with starvation and thirst, when they were eventually rescued by Solomon Islanders loyal to the Allies.
The islanders could operate in daylight without arousing Japanese suspicion, and many served as scouts for Allied coastwatchers operating behind enemy lines. Two of them helped deliver to a coastwatcher a coconut Kennedy famously carved with a rescue message.
After receiving messages from the 109 crew, the coastwatcher radioed the PT base to arrange a rescue. Six days after their stranding, Kennedy and crew were safe aboard a sister ship, PT-157. (Hear a firsthand account of the rescue from PT-157's Welford West.)
The PT-109 survival story passed into popular culture and became perhaps Kennedy's greatest political asset.
Kennedy the President had a PT-109 float in his inaugural parade, doled out 109 tiepins to visitors, and kept his medals on permanent display. And on his Oval Office desk sat, lacquered and almost illegible, the world's most important coconut.
Raise the Wreck?
Despite its sorry state, PT-109 is an icon of courage and presidential glamour. Should it be raised? Ballard isn't biting.
"I'm actually content to leave it buried," the explorer said. "I think it's a grave, and it's aproposshowing us enough to know but burying the rest."
Help Support Exploration and Education
Join the National Geographic Society by subscribing to National Geographic magazine. Order online and claim your free world map >>
This story aired on on our U.S. television program National Geographic Today
SOURCES AND RELATED WEB SITES