The report emphasizes the linkages between environmental degradation and human quality of life issues. More than 1.1 billion people on the planet lack access to safe drinking water, and nearly 3 billion do not have access to adequate sanitation. In addition to the grinding poverty that this connotes, it also means that waterborne diseases claim the lives of between 14,000 to 30,000 people a day.
"That is the equivalent of several September 11th tragedies, every day, year in year outbut without the media attention," the report authors note.
A global assessment of fresh water conducted in 1997 by the U.N. concluded that one-third of the world lives in countries that find it difficult or impossible to meet their water needs. This raises the specter of an ever-increasing number of armed conflicts over water resources. In addition, since agriculture typically uses about two-thirds of a country's water, and tends to be a politically weak sector, governments hoping to conserve water look to farms first, leading inevitably to reduced food supplies in regions that are already hard hit.
Climate Change and Linkage
Climate change is probably the biggest problem facing the world today, says Gardner, and one where not a lot of improvement has been seen.
Carbon dioxide emissions, the most potent of greenhouse gases, have risen by more than 9 percent in the last decade. At the same time, the science surrounding climate change has become more certain that emissions are accelerating the pace of global warming, and that rising global temperatures can be solidly attributed to human activities.
"Climate change is global in scope, it presents a mix of environmental and social problems, and there's an equity issue, in that the nations most responsible for causing the problem are the least likely to suffer from it," said Gardner.
U.S. emissions, for instance, rose by 18 percent, yet the U.S. is likely to be affected the least by rising temperatures.
Rising sea levels threaten small island nations and coastal communities around the world with economic devastation. Warmer temperatures brought on by climate change also extend the range of mosquitoes and other insects, enabling a broader spread of malaria and animal disease. It increases algal blooms, which expands the habitat available to microbes that cause cholera. And warmer ocean water temperatures can kill coral reefs, the nurseries for many marine species.
All of these impacts will be felt most severely by Third World nations.
Gardner cites Hurricane Mitch as an example of the tightly interwoven economic and social issues brought on by climate change.
One effect of global warming is an increase in weather-triggered super-disasters; storms, floods, fires, and droughts are all becoming more frequent and more severe. When Hurricane Mitch struck in 1998, more than 10,000 people were killed in Honduras and Nicaragua. Many of the lives lost were the result of flooding and mudslides. Deforestation, mining, and recently cleared agricultural fields all contributed to the mudslides and flooding; soil on hillsides that had been bound by tree roots simply slid away in the face of pounding rain and no binding.
Looking to the Future
Worldwatch hopes the State of the World 2002 report will help frame the agenda of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, set to take place in Johannesburg, South Africa, in September 2002. Representatives from more than 180 nations are expected to attend the United Nations-sponsored event.
"The favored development model of the 20th century is materials-intensive, driven by fossil fuels, based on mass consumption and mass disposal, and oriented primarily toward economic growth with scant regard for meeting people's needs," concludes the report.
The need for a new concept of globalization, beyond the narrow focus of trade and finance to one that takes the interaction between human populations and the natural world into considerationand focuses on sustainable development and environmental and human needsis imperative, the report authors say.
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