"The temperature underground is about 4 degrees Celsius (39 degrees Fahrenheit)," said Bob Mason, a reproductive biologist at Oregon State University and a co-author of the study. "They're wet and cold, have to vent out a lot of built-up waste, and are rotten sprinters.
"They're pretty lethargic, and when they first come out, the average male is really a rotten courter," he added.
Even so, the male garter snake's mind is on just one thing. "They move around a lot, waiting for females, constantly looking, looking, looking," said Mason.
When a female finally emerges from the den, she is immediately engulfed in a giant mating ball, swamped by the attention of as many as 100 males competing for the opportunity to mate. Once she is fully claimed, the unsuccessful suitors slither off, looking for other females.
In this mix are she-males. When they emerge from the den, they too are swamped with male interest.
Until now the female-mimicking behavior was generally seen as a ruse by which a she-male would increase his own mating opportunities by duping other malesessentially tricking them into expending a great deal of energy battling for non-existent opportunities to mate.
Once the other males gave up the fight and slithered off, exhausted, the she-male would revert to being fully male, and in prime condition for courting.
But the explanation troubled some scientists. "There were always nagging issues," said Mason.
Rethinking the Theory
Mason and Rick Shine, a scientist at the University of Sydney, Australia, and lead author of the new study, had worked together earlier on studies of she-males and decided to jointly seek an answer to the she-male garter snake's behavior.
"This is a perfect example of collaborative science," said Mason. "Rick is an evolutionary biologist, while I'm a reproductive biologist. We bring different skills and approach the problem from slightly different angles."
The research showed that the she-males did not have greater success in reproduction than other males. What, then, was the purpose of their behavior?
To improve the she-males' chances of survival, the researchers say.
"It occurred to me that the one true, obvious, and indisputable effect of female mimicry was to attract a crowd of amorous suitors," said Shine.
High numbers of male garter snakes die soon after emerging from hibernation because they are attacked by crows. She-males at the center of a mating ball, however, are less exposed to predators.
Moreover, as the courting males basically wrestle one another in an effort to claim a female snake in their midst, they transfer heat. The she-males use this heat to raise their body temperature, thereby accelerating their recovery from hibernation and improving their ability to avoid capture.
"This speaks directly to the paradox between sexual selection versus natural selection," said Mason. "We almost always think of these traits as providing some kind of reproductive advantage, but sometimes the simplest explanation is the best."
The she-male garter snakes, he said, "are just cold, and they gain a survival advantage" from their female-mimicking behavior.
For other species in which males mimic females, it's not known whether this behavior evolved as the result of sexual selection or natural selection.
"I do think [this study] is a cautionary tale," said Shine, "in that sometimes simple explanations are ignored in our search for more complex and elegant hypotheses."
SOURCES AND RELATED WEB SITES