Pack formation in cycling and orienteering races gives competitors the edge of working with one another to reach the finish line in the fastest time.
In cycling races, when an individual competitor sees a rider out in front, he or she tends to chase the rider to take advantage of the aerodynamic effect of "drafting." The two riders then share this drafting benefit, allowing them to save energy, move faster, and catch up to riders ahead of them.
This process continues until the end of the race, when one big group usually crosses the finish line, followed by a gap and then another big group, said Ackland.
"As for people of lesser ability winning because of packs, the obvious example would be sprinters winning stages of the Tour de France," he said. "There's no way they are the best at cycling 200 kilometers (124 miles)."
In orienteering, the race is based on the competitors' skill in using a detailed map and compass to navigate a series of checkpoints in a given landscape.
Sometimes, however, contenders who see another racer up ahead abandon orienteering skills and just run to catch up, said Robin Shannonhouse, executive director of the United States Orienteering Federation.
Although such behavior is frowned on and even considered cheating in certain orienteering events, it is common among younger racers, said Shannonhouse. "They see someone else running by who looks like they know what they are doing and not even consciously they say, I guess, "[The right direction] is the way he is going,'" she said.
Shannonhouse said such behavior seldom pays. "I've been in orienteering since the mid '70s," she said, "and have never seen an instance where cheating actually won something."
The findings of the study suggest that race organizers, if they knew certain information about the competitors and the course, could stagger the start of a competition to avoid pack formation, said Auckland.
"If the format has the competitors starting at x-minute intervals, our results enable us to determine how far into the race pack formation will begin to become crucial, and hence to increase x so that pack formation doesn't start until after the race has finished," said Ackland.
In some cases, though, even a well-planned staggered start won't prevent racers from forming packs.
Shannonhouse described a national orienteering competition for high school and middle school students held last year near Atlanta, Georgia. Students from the same school began the race in staggered, six-minute intervals. By the end of the race, entire school teams had finished together, their times precisely staggered by six minutes.
"They all waited and ran together," she said.
"But they didn't win," she added. "The ones who won are the ones who should have won."
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